🔍 Understanding ISQĀT̤ (اسقاط‎): The 🕌 Islamic Perspectives on Abortion
Dive into the complex issue of Isqāṭ̤ (اسقاط‎), the Islamic term for abortion. Examine the theological, ethical, and cultural dimensions surrounding this topic within the framework of Islamic law and society.
🩸 Understanding BLOOD in Islamic Jurisprudence: Unlawfulness of Blood Sale
Dive into the concept of blood in Islamic law, exploring why the sale of blood is considered unlawful according to traditional jurisprudence and ethical perspectives.
🔎 Unveiling ẒALĀLAH: The 🕌 Islamic Concept of Error
Explore Ẓalālah (ضلالة‎), the Islamic notion of 'error,' and its profound implications within the Qur’an and Islamic thought. Examine its etymology, cultural nuances, synonyms, antonyms, and its role in guiding ethical and moral behavior in Islam.
💬 Unveiling the Sin of LYING: An Arabic and Islamic Perspective
Dive deep into the concept of lying in Islamic culture, its ramifications, and the spiritual guidance given by the Prophet ﷺ. Explore ethical dimensions, cultural insights, and the wisdom underlying the stance against deceit in Islam.
💼 The Performance of Religious Duties Under Muḥammadan Law
Dive into the intriguing discourse on how religious duties are to be performed strictly according to Muḥammadan law, exploring the historical, ethical, and contemporary perspectives.
🕰️ IṢRĀR: Persistence in Sin in Islamic Theology
Deep dive into the concept of IṢRĀR (اصرار‎) in Islamic theology—understand its meaning, origin, cultural implications, and how it shapes Muslim ethical norms.
🤝 Embodying Beneficence (سماحة‎ samāḥah) in Islam
Discover the concept of Beneficence (سماحة‎ samāḥah) in Islam, and its significance as a criterion of faith according to the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ). Delve into its etymology, cultural nuances, and applications in daily life.
📜 Understanding ʿUbūdīyah: The Islamic Concept of Slavery
Explore the complex notions of slavery (ʿUbūdīyah) in Islam, its historical context, Qur'anic teachings, and the differences in treatment across cultures. Understand the theological and moral considerations central to Islamic discussions on slavery.
🌟 Exploring ʿILMU ʾL-AK͟HLĀQ (علم الاخلاق‎): The Pillars of Islamic Ethics and Morals 🌟
Dive into ʿILMU ʾL-AK͟HLĀQ, the Islamic science of ethics and morals. Explore influential works and their profound impact on Islamic thought, while comparing cultural variations and illuminating the universal principles shared across traditions.
📜 The Islamic Perspective on Oaths and Swearing
Delve into the importance, types, and consequences of swearing and oaths in Islam, understanding how solemn promises underpin ethical and moral behavior in the Islamic tradition.
🌿 Understanding ḤIRṢ (حرص‎): a Deeper Look into Islamic Concept of Avarice and Greed
Explore ḤIRṢ (حرص‎) in Islam, a term signifying avarice, greed, and eagerness. Understand its manifestations, significance in the Qur'an, and relevant cultural interpretations.
🔍 Understanding Islamic Perspectives on Abortion: 🕌 Ethics and Jurisprudence
Explore the complexities of abortion in Islamic jurisprudence, contrasting it across different Sunni schools of law and understanding the ethical considerations that come with the matter.
🗣️ Unveiling QATTĀT (قتات‎): The Role of a Tale-Bearer in Islam
Delve into the term QATTĀT (قتات‎), referring to a slanderer or talebearer in Islamic tradition. Learn about its significance and the moral and ethical implications of tale-bearing in Islam.
🤐 KITMĀN: The Intricacies of Concealment in Islamic Context
Delve into the complex practice of Kitmān—the art of concealing one's true religious beliefs in specific contexts within Islamic traditions. Learn about its applications, historical background, and the ethical dilemmas it entails.
🕌 Understanding IMSĀK (امساك‎): The Concept of Deliberate Withholding in Islam
Dive deep into the Islamic concept of Imsāk (امساك‎), its occurrences in the Qur'ān, theological significance, and how it contrasts with generosity (Infāq). Understand its cultural implications and practical applications in daily life.
🔍 Understanding SUICIDE: Islamic Perspective on Self-Harm ☪️
Dive deep into the Islamic perspective on suicide, its moral and theological implications, and its contrasting interpretations within different Muslim communities globally.
💸 Understanding BRIBERY: The Islamic Perspective on رشوة‎ (Rishwah)
Dive into the Islamic understanding of bribery (رشوة‎ rishwah) and explore its various interpretations, moral implications, and legal rulings within the Islamic jurisprudence. Contrast its treatment across different Islamic schools of thought and historical contexts.
🌟 The Virtuous Character: Unraveling KHULQ (خلق‎) in Islam
Dive into the Islamic concept of Khulq, which refers to disposition, temper, and nature. This exploration will highlight its significance in the Qur'ān and in Islamic ethics, compare it with similar concepts in other cultures, and explore its implications in the daily life of a Muslim.
🔍 The Islamic Perspective on Slavery: Historical Context and Ethical Nuances
Dive into the complex historical and ethical dimensions of slavery in Islamic tradition, juxtaposing it with slavery in other historical contexts, as seen through the teachings of the Qurʾān, Hadiths, and various scholarly interpretations.
🚼 Infanticide: A Harrowing Practice and Its Prohibition in Islam 😇
Explore the concept of infanticide, its historical presence in pre-Islamic societies, and the unequivocal prohibition by the Quran. Understand the transformation in the status and rights of women and children in Islamic law.
✂️ The Concept of 'Cutting Off a Nose' in Islamic Law
Delve into the disciplinary measures and retribution associated with 'Cutting Off a Nose' as per Islamic jurisprudence. Explore its historical context and theological implications.
💡 Understanding MAKRŪH (مكروه): The Islamic Concept of Disapproved Acts
Delve into the concept of makrūh (مكروه) in Islamic law, focusing on acts that, while not strictly forbidden, are deemed disliked or inappropriate. Examine the nuances in different Islamic schools of thought and their implications in daily life.
💬 Dissecting GHĪBAH: The Potent Consequence of Backbiting in Islam
Discover the profound significance of GHĪBAH (غـيبة‎) in Islamic ethics, as a critical social behavior and sin condemned in the Qurʾān. Understand its moral implications, etymology, occurrences in religious texts, cultural differences, and the importance of avoiding slander and backbiting.
💼 Exploring MUMSIK (ممسك‎): The Miserly Character in Islamic Thought
Understand the concept of MUMSIK (ممسك‎) in Islam, detailing its origin, cultural implications, and its contrast with the term 'Munfiq' (منفق)—a liberal or generous person. Discover the moral and ethical dimensions as discussed in Islamic teachings.
📝 Biography & Contributions of Ibn Miskawayh: Pioneer of Ethical Philosophy in Islam
Discover the life and work of Ibn Miskawayh, the Persian philosopher and historian who made significant contributions to Islamic ethics. Explore his profound teachings and his influence on Islamic thought and society.
🔍 Unveiling AL-HUMAZAH (الهمزة‎): Slander and Its Consequences
Explore Al-Humazah, the 104th Surah of the Qurʾān, which highlights the severe consequences of slander and backbiting. Understand its theological importance and cultural implications.
😈 Unveiling KHABĪS̤: The Concept of Wickedness in Islam
Understand KHABĪS̤ (خبيث‎), which refers to impurity, baseness, and wickedness. Explore its significance in Islamic ethics and theology through historical and cultural lenses.
🙏 Reflecting on Tawbah: The 🕌 Essence of Islamic Repentance
Delve into the profound concept of Tawbah (Repentance) in Islam, its significance in personal and communal contexts, exploring its theological roots and impact on social ethics.
🕊️ Understanding ʿItq: The Islamic Concept of Manumission
Explore ʿItq (عتق‎), the Islamic concept of manumission—an integral part of Islamic teachings that emphasize freeing slaves. Understand its religious, social, cultural, and historical significance.
⚔️ Understanding HARB: The Concept of Unlawful Warfare in Islam
Dive into the concept of Harb, encapsulating warfare that is not sanctioned by Islamic law. Explore its historical context, cultural differences, and ethical considerations in Islamic theology.
❤️ Sexuality in Islam: Harmony, Responsibility, and Morality
Explore the comprehensive understanding of sexuality in Islam, emphasizing fulfilled marital sexual relations, legal restrictions, and intricate interplays of cultural practices. Understand the subtleties around topics such as contraception, sexual ethics, and paternity.
🏦 Understanding Insolvency (إفلاس) in Islamic Jurisprudence
Explore the intricacies of insolvency (إفلاس) within Islamic law, including its establishment by judicial decree and the effects on bequests. Understand comparisons with other legal systems and ethical considerations.
👩‍👧‍👦 Understanding Surrogate Motherhood in Islam: Ethics and Perspectives
Explore surrogate motherhood within Islamic jurisprudence, examining its ethical implications, cultural contexts, and legal standings. Delve into contemporary debates and comparing perspectives across the Muslim world.
📈 Capitalism and Islam: Bridging Values and Economics 🌙
Explore the complex relationship between capitalism and Islamic economics, delving into Quranic support, ethical practices, and the historical evolution of Islamic economic thought. Understand contemporary Islamic banking practices and how they seek to balance profit with social justice.
📝 Understanding QASAM (قسم‎): The Sacred Oath in Islam
Explore the meaning and significance of Qasam (قسم‎), the sacred oath in Islam. Learn about its etymology, background, synonyms, and cultural importance.
🔄 The Conception of Qisas: Islamic Practice of Retaliation
Delve into Qisas, the Islamic practice of lawful retaliation, and explore its themes of justice, accountability, and ethical boundaries within the legal framework of Islam. Compare and contrast with other legal traditions and understand its socio-cultural impacts.
🔍 Unmasking Terrorism: The Complexities in the 💼 Islamic Context
Explore the intricate layers of the term 'Terrorism,' focusing on its definition, historical context, and condemnation in Islamic law. Understand how Islam navigates the ethics of violence and peace, ensuring a balanced view on a sensitive topic.
🔍 Wisdom in 🕌 Islamic Teachings: The Importance of Ḥaẕar (Caution)
Explore the Islamic concept of Ḥaẕar (caution), a valuable trait emphasized in the teachings of Prophet Muhammad. Understand its significance across various situations, its cultural context, and its universal appeal.
🚫 Delving into Ḥarām: The Unlawful in Islamic Teachings
Unpack the meaning, significance, and cultural interpretations of ḥarām (حرام‎) in Islam. Understand its implications in religious, ethical, and social contexts, and how it shapes Muslim identity and practices.
🕌 VOWS in Islam: The Power and Responsibility of Naẕr (نذر‎)
Explore the Islamic concept of vows, known as Naẕr (نذر‎), their significance in the lives of believers, and the profound responsibilities entailed. Delve into the spiritual and ethical dimensions of fulfilling and atoning for vows.
⚖️ Exploring K͟HIYĀNAH (خيانة‎): The Islamic Concept of Breach of Trust
Dive deep into the concept of K͟HIYĀNAH (خيانة‎), the Islamic term for breach of trust. Discover its etymology, theological significance, and cultural implications within the broader context of Islamic law and ethics.
⚖️ Understanding MUFSID: The 🕌 Islamic Concept of a Pernicious Person
Explore the concept of Mufsid in Islam, a term used to describe a pernicious person, and understand its significance in Qurʾānic context and broader Islamic teachings. Compare and contrast with the term Muṣlih, the fair dealer, to grasp deeper ethical and moral teachings in Islam.
✊ The Emancipation of Slaves (Iʿtāq) in Islam: A Path to Spiritual Freedom
Dive deep into the practice of Iʿtāq, the emancipation of slaves in Islamic teachings. Understand its roots, significance, cultural interpretations, and inspirational stories from Islamic lore.
🌟 AK͟HLĀQ (اخلاق‎): The Foundation of Islamic Morality
Dive into the significance of AK͟HLĀQ (اخلاق‎), the plural of K͟hulq, referring to natures, dispositions, habits, and manners in Islamic tradition. Discover its etymology, cultural variations, and explore prominent works and authors.
🌟 The Essence of Isrāf: Understanding Extravagance in Islam
Delve deep into the concept of Isrāf in Islam, which signifies extravagance or wastefulness. Discover its theological, cultural, and ethical implications, and how it is viewed across different Islamic cultures.
🌟 The Virtue of Forgiveness in Islam: Insights from Qur'anic Teachings
Explore the profound concept of forgiveness as emphasized in the Qur'an, particularly in Sūrah xlii. 38. Understand its significance in Islamic theology and compare it with other philosophical viewpoints.
🌟 Unmasking RIYĀʾ (رياء) in Islam: The Perils of Hypocrisy
Dive deep into the Islamic concept of riyāʾ, often translated as hypocrisy. Understand its condemnation in the Qur'an, its roots within Islamic ethical discourse, and its parallels in other religious traditions.
🌿 Envy: Understanding Ḥasad (حسد‎) in Islamic Contexts
Dive deep into the concept of envy, known as Ḥasad (حسد‎) in Arabic. Explore its occurrences in the Qurʾān, its significance in Islamic teachings, and how it compares with other cultural understandings of envy.
🎯 The Islamic Art of Hunting: Understanding Ṣaid (صيد‎)
Dive into the fascinating rules and regulations surrounding hunting in Islam. Learn about the ethical, spiritual, and legal dimensions of this practice, including the roles of trained dogs, hawks, and the importance of invoking God's name.
🎲 Exploring QIMĀR: Understanding the Islamic Perspective on Gambling
Delve into Qimār (قمار‎), the concept of gambling in Islam, its prohibition, cultural significance, and the ethical implications presented within Islamic theology. Compare and contrast it with other religious and cultural views on gambling.
🏠 The Selection of a Wife: An Islamic Perspective 🕌
Explore the criteria for selecting a wife in Islamic tradition, encompassing intellect, honor, modesty, and more, delving into the significance of these characteristics within the faith.
👗 Unearthing LIBĀS: The Islamic Concept of Apparel
Delve into the meaning, background, and cultural significance of 'Libās' in Islamic traditions. Explore how apparel goes beyond mere clothing to encompass profound ethical and spiritual dimensions.
👶 The Islamic Perspective on CHILDREN (أولاد): An Ethos of Upbringing and Nurturing
Delve into the detailed Islamic concepts surrounding the birth, upbringing, and education of children (أولاد). Understand the blend of Islamic traditions and cultural nuances that shape the experience of raising children in Muslim communities.
💎 Exploring CHASTITY in Islam: Understanding Morality and the Role of Ethics
Dive deep into the concept of chastity (العِفَّة) in Islam. Understand its interpretations, practice, cultural implications, and theological underpinnings.
💔 Understanding ḤASAD: The Concept of Envy in Islam
Dive into the profound concept of ḤASAD (حسد‎) in Islam, exploring its etymology, cultural implications, and religious teachings around envy and malice. Learn how this concept is woven through the Qurʾān and communities, joined by suggestions for further study.
💬 The Art of Conversation in Islam: A Moral and Ethical Guide
Dive into the ethical and moral guidelines provided in the Qurʾān and Hadith on the art of conversation. Explore the profound wisdom from the Qurʾān, Islamic traditions, and scholars regarding speaking, listening, and the right etiquette in communication.
💰 Understanding LUXURY: The 🀄️ Arabic Concept of tanaʿum (تنعم‎)
Dive into the Arabic concept of tanaʿum, often equating to 'luxury,' and explore its deeper implications in Islamic thought and classical literature. Compare it with other cultural and religious perspectives.
💰 Understanding QARẒ (قرض‎): The Islamic Concept of Loan and Charity
Explore QARẒ (قرض‎), the Islamic concept of a loan as both a charitable good deed and as a financial transaction. Understand its significance in Islamic finance and culture, along with its ethical and religious implications.
💹 Understanding MUḤTAKIR: Unlawful Monopoly in Islam 🕌
Explore the concept of Muḥtakir, the one who monopolizes essential goods in Islamic law. Understand its etymology, religious significance, and cultural implications.
📚 The Islamic Terms Lexicon: Understanding Divorce in Islam 🕌
Explore the Qurʾānic and traditional perspectives on divorce within Islamic jurisprudence. Understand the rules and ethics governing this delicate aspect of life and discover how it fits into the broader framework of Islamic teachings.
📚 Unveiling Kalila wa Dimna: Ancient Tales with Timeless Wisdom 🐺✨
Dive into the rich lore of Kalila wa Dimna—an ageless collection of fables narrated by two jackals, Kalila and Dimna, offering ethical and moral lessons relevant to modern society.
📜 Traditions of Muḥammad: Insights from the Hadith 🕌
Unveil the wisdom and teachings of Prophet Muḥammad as enshrined in the Hadith. Discover key quotations and their implications on Islamic faith and practices, comparing past and contemporary interpretations.
📜 Understanding Ethics in Islamic Thought 🌙
Dive into the complex world of Islamic ethics, exploring the philosophical debates between rationalist and divine command theories, and understanding their impact on modern social and political movements.
📜 Unveiling THEFT: Understanding the Islamic Perspective on LARCENY
Delve into the concept of theft from an Islamic viewpoint, exploring its legal, ethical, and moral facets through the lens of Islamic jurisprudence. Compare its interpretation with legal doctrines across various cultures.
🔍 Understanding DIRRAH: The 🕌 Islamic Scourge of Morals
Explore the concept of Dirrah, an Islamic tool of discipline employed by the public censor for maintaining religious and moral conduct. Delve into its historical background, cultural nuances, and theological significance.
🔍 Understanding LUQT̤AH: The 🛡️ Jurisprudence of Found Property in Islam
Delve into the concept of Luqt̤ah in Islamic jurisprudence. Understand the obligations and ethical considerations imposed on those who find lost property. Compare its significance in Islamic and Western legal traditions and explore its cultural implications.
🔍 Understanding QAẒF (قذف): The 🕌 Islamic Concept of False Accusation of Adultery
Explore QAẒF, the Islamic concept of false accusation of adultery, and its implications in Islamic jurisprudence. Understand the ethical, social, and legal aspects of this important principle.
🔍 Understanding SARAQAH: The Islamic Perspective on [THEFT] 🚨
Delve into the Islamic understanding of Saraqah (سرقة‎), a term referring to theft. Explore its legal, ethical, and cultural facets within Islamic jurisprudence and compare it with definitions from other cultures.
🔍 Understanding the Concept of SANCTUARY in Islam: 🕌 Ethical Boundaries and Historical Comparisons
Explore the concept of sanctuary within Islam, delving into the ethical boundaries set by the Prophet Muhammad regarding executions within mosques. Uncover the origins, cultural differences, and historical connections to similar practices in other religious traditions.
🔍 Unveiling the Concept of Qazf: The Islamic View on Slander 🗣️
Discover the concept of Qazf, which represents slander or false accusation in Islamic law. Understand its implications, legal ramifications, and ethical consequences within Islamic jurisprudence.
🔪 Delving into QATL (قتل‎): The Gravity of Murder in Islam
Understand Qatl (قتل‎), the concept of intentional murder in Islamic law. Explore its etymology, legal implications, and cultural perspectives, enriching your awareness of this fundamental and serious issue.
🚑 The Principle of 'Inqadh': Duty to Rescue in Islamic Law
Delve into the concept of 'Inqadh' in Islamic law, the moral and religious obligation to save or rescue individuals in distress while understanding the legal, historical, and cultural dimensions.
🚫 Begging in Islam: An Ethical and Moral Perspective
Explore the Islamic teachings on begging, rooted in self-reliance and dignity. Discover the ethical and theological underpinnings, along with cultural interpretations and inspirational quotations.
📿 Discovering Lost Treasure: Understanding luqt̤ah (لقطة‎) in Islamic Jurisprudence
Explore the concept of luqt̤ah (لقطة‎) in Islamic law, a term describing property found and taken with the intention of preservation. Learn about its cultural, historical, and legal implications in the Muslim world.
🕊️ Unveiling NIFĀQ (نفاق‎): The Core of Hypocrisy in Islam
Dive into the Arabic term 'Nifāq', referring to hypocrisy, and uncover its profound significance in Islamic texts and moral teachings. Examine its etymology, cultural context, related terms, and comparisons with other worldviews.
🕋 The Concept of Sin in Islam: 📜 Ethical Guidelines and Accountability
Delve into the intricate concept of 'sin' in Islam, understanding its classifications, significance, and the underlying theological principles. Explore its cultural perspectives, etymology, historical context, and comparisons with other religious traditions.
🕌 Delving into ḤẒaQQULLĀH: Understanding 'The Right of God'
Explore the multifaceted concept of Ḥaqulluʾllāh in Islamic law and theology. Understand its implications for retributive chastisement and religious duties, reflecting the core of Islamic jurisprudence and ethical conduct.
🕌 Modesty and Immodesty: An Islamic Perspective
Delve into the Islamic concepts of modesty (Hayaa) and immodesty, their significance, and how they shape personal and societal behaviors in Islamic traditions.
🗣️ Unveiling the Concept of G͟hībah: Backbiting in Islam
Discover the profound insights into G͟hībah, the act of backbiting in Islam, including its etymology, cultural ramifications, and the moral and ethical teachings surrounding it.
🤔 Exploring RIQQ (رق): The Concept of Servitude in Islamic History
Dive deep into the concept of Riqq (رق‎), an important term associated with servitude and slavery in Islamic history. Understand its etymology, historical context, and cultural implications in Islam.
🤝 Understanding IʾS̤ĀR: The Virtue of Selflessness in Islam
Explore the concept of IʾS̤ĀR (ايثار‎) in Islam, emphasizing the virtue of selflessness. Understand its significance in Islamic ethics and spirituality, and draw comparisons with similar concepts in other religions and philosophies.
✨ Understanding S̤AWĀB (ثواب): The 🕋 Concept of Divine Reward in Islam
Explore S̤AWĀB (ثواب‎), the profound Islamic concept of divine reward for good deeds, and understand its significance and impact on Islamic ethics. Compare it with similar notions in other religious traditions.

Islamic Terms Lexicon is your ultimate resource for understanding the vast and intricate world of Islamic doctrines, rites, ceremonies, customs, and technical & theological terms. Our comprehensive dictionary provides thousands of terms in both English and Arabic, each with detailed definitions, authoritative references, and quizzes designed to sharpen your understanding and enhance your learning experience.

Amina Al-Fahad Ibrahim Al-Hakim Ibrahim Al-Rashid Ibrahim Al-Hassan Hassan Al-Rashid Fatima Al-Hassan Fatima Al-Zahra Yusuf Al-Hakim Layla Al-Rashid Fatima Al-Rashid Ibrahim Al-Mansur Layla Hassan Zainab Al-Rashid Fatima Zahra Layla Al-Hassan Zayd Al-Hakim Zaynab Al-Rashid Ibrahim Al-Yusuf Layla Hasan Yusuf Al-Mahdi Yusuf Al-Rashid Dr. Layla Hassan Fatima Al-Husseini Harun Al-Rashid Ibrahim Malik Layla Ahmed Mustafa Al-Hakim Ahmad Al-Rashid Hakim Al-Rashid Hasan Al-Rashid Hassan Al-Hakim Hassan Al-Tamimi Ibrahim Al-Hakeem Ibrahim Al-Hashimi Ibrahim Al-Hussein Ibrahim Al-Karim Ibrahim Al-Khalil Ibrahim Al-Yazid Ibrahim Mustafa Khalid Al-Mansoor Omar Al-Hakim Omar Al-Rashid Samira Al-Hakim Tariq Al-Hakim Yusuf Al-Mansur Zainab Malik Zaynab Al-Hakim Zaynab Al-Hussein Ahmad Al-Hakim Fatima Ahmed Fatima Al-Husayni Fatima Al-Hussein Fatima Al-Mansouri Fatima El-Amin Fatima El-Sayed Fatima Rahman Fatima Rahmani Fatima Siddiqui Fatimah Al-Rashid Fatimah Zahra Hassan Al-Mansur Hassan Al-Razi Ibrahim Al-Husseini Ibrahim Al-Khatib Ibrahim Al-Mahdi Ibrahim Al-Mansoor Ibrahim Al-Mansour Ibrahim Al-Mansouri Ibrahim Al-Najjar Ibrahim Hassan Ibrahim Khalid Ibrahim Suleiman Khalid Al-Rashid Layla Al-Hakim Layla Al-Hashimi Layla Al-Mansoori Layla Al-Mansouri Layla Mahmoud Layla Mustafa Layla Rahman Tariq Al-Mansur Yasmin Al-Hassan Yasmin Al-Rashid Yusuf Al-Mansoor Yusuf Ibn Khalid Zara Ahmed Zaynab Hassan Ahmed Al-Hakim Aisha Ahmed Aisha Al-Hassan Aisha Rahman Aliyah Rahman Farah Al-Zahra Fatima Al-Habib Fatima Al-Hariri Fatima Al-Hassani Fatima Al-Mahmoud Fatima Al-Najjar Fatima Al-Qadri Fatima Anwar